rare earth periodic table
December 30, 2023

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Jamie Green

Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 chemically similar elements that have unique properties and play a crucial role in various high-tech industries. These elements have been changing the world in several ways.

REEs are essential components in many electronic devices and technologies. They are used in the production of smartphones, computers, televisions, and other gadgets. REEs make screens brighter, batteries more efficient, and magnets smaller and more powerful, which, in turn, leads to the development of smaller and more efficient electronic devices.

Rare earths are crucial for the clean energy sector. Neodymium and dysprosium, for example, are used in the production of strong permanent magnets for wind turbines and electric vehicle motors. Without these magnets, the transition to renewable energy and electric transportation would be more challenging and less efficient.


They have infiltrated the arsenal of advanced military equipment. They find applications in missile guidance systems, radar systems, and communication equipment, enhancing the capabilities of nations in the realm of defence. Ensuring a stable supply of these elements is a strategic imperative for any country.

Rare earths play a significant role in various green technologies. Lanthanum and cerium are used in catalytic converters to reduce emissions from internal combustion engines, while europium and terbium are used in energy-efficient lighting, such as LED and fluorescent bulbs.

Some rare earth elements, like gadolinium, are used in medical imaging, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. These agents help improve the clarity and accuracy of medical diagnoses.

Rare earth elements are crucial for the production of electric vehicle batteries and motors. Neodymium, for instance, is used in the magnets for electric vehicle motors, contributing to their efficiency and performance. The aerospace industry relies on rare earth materials for various applications, including the production of lightweight alloys used in aircraft and spacecraft. These materials help reduce fuel consumption and improve overall efficiency.

Some rare earth elements can be used to clean up contaminated sites. For example, cerium can be incorporated into catalysts to break down pollutants in exhaust gases.

Rare earths are essential for the development of advanced materials and technologies used in space exploration missions. These elements can enhance the performance of spacecraft and equipment used in space.

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These elements can enhance the performance of spacecraft and equipment used in space.

The global supply of rare earth elements is not evenly distributed, with China historically dominating production. This has led to concerns about supply chain vulnerabilities and geopolitical tensions, as many countries seek to diversify their sources of rare earths to reduce dependency on a single supplier.

Geopolitics of Rare Earths

The geopolitics surrounding rare earth elements are shaped by their critical importance in modern technology and industry. China is the dominant player in the global rare earth market, accounting for a significant majority of global production. This dominance has given China substantial influence over the supply and pricing of rare earths, making it a central player in global geopolitics.

China’s rare earth dominance is due in part to its vast reserves of these elements. Other countries, such as Australia, the United States, and Russia, also have significant rare earth deposits, but they have not matched China’s level of production.

Many countries, including the United States, Europe, and Japan, rely heavily on Chinese rare earth exports. This dependence has raised concerns about the security of supply chains, especially in times of political tension or trade disputes.

global rare earths

Geopolitical tensions and trade disputes have at times spilled over into the rare earth industry. For example, China imposed export restrictions on rare earths during a dispute with Japan in 2010, raising concerns about access to these critical materials.

In response to concerns about supply chain vulnerabilities, many countries are exploring ways to diversify their sources of rare earths. This includes efforts to develop domestic production and processing capabilities.

The extraction and processing of rare earths can have significant environmental impacts. Countries with stricter environmental regulations may face higher production costs, potentially affecting their competitiveness in the global market.

Some countries have formed strategic alliances to secure a stable supply of rare earths. For example, the United States has sought to strengthen relationships with Australia and Canada to enhance the resilience of its supply chain.

Research and development efforts are underway to reduce the reliance on rare earths in certain applications by developing alternative materials and technologies. Nations with rare earth resources are actively exploring and developing their reserves to gain a foothold in the global rare earth market. This has led to competition for access to these resources.

There is increasing pressure on the rare earth industry to adopt more sustainable and responsible mining and processing practices. This has implications for the competitiveness of producers based on their environmental performance.

The geopolitics of rare earths are complex and multifaceted, driven by the strategic importance of these elements in modern technology, the concentration of production in China, concerns about supply chain vulnerabilities, and efforts by countries to secure access to rare earth resources. The geopolitics around rare earths are likely to remain a significant aspect of international relations and trade negotiations in the years to come.

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Australian Rare Earth Industry

Australia has a growing rare earth mining industry that has gained international attention due to its potential to become a significant player in the global rare earth supply chain.

Australia is known to have substantial rare earth resources, with several deposits across the country. Prominent rare earth deposits in Australia include Mount Weld in Western Australia and the Dubbo Zirconia Project in New South Wales.

Australia’s rare earth industry has gained geopolitical importance as countries seek to diversify their supply chains away from China, which historically dominated rare earth production. This shift has driven investments and interest in Australian rare earth mining.

Australia aims to build an integrated rare earth supply chain, from mining and processing to value-added manufacturing. This approach helps create more value within the country and reduces dependence on foreign processing and refining facilities.

Australia’s rare earth mining industry is growing and has the potential to become a significant contributor to the global rare earth supply chain. With its substantial resources and strategic location, Australia aims to play a key role in meeting the increasing demand for rare earth elements in various industries worldwide while addressing environmental and regulatory challenges.

Rare earth elements are changing the world by driving innovation in technology, clean energy, defence, healthcare, and more. Their unique properties and diverse applications make them essential components in many industries, and ensuring a stable supply of these elements has become a significant concern for governments and industries worldwide.

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PrimaryMarkets provides investors with access to companies that are shaping the future of global industries and standing at the forefront of rare earth exploration. We provide access to opportunities previously only accessible to institutional investors.

PrimaryMarkets has raised and is raising capital for companies developing important rare earth and critical mineral operations globally, including Lava Blue, a company developing a range of high-purity materials for use in the manufacture of advanced batteries and other renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells. Also on the Platform are mining exploration companies such as Rubicon Resources which holds an option on a rare earth element project in western NSW, that has the potential to be a world-class deposit.

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